Updated August 12, 2017 at 3:23 PM

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2. Thirty minutes later, give sodium sulphate (Glauber's salt), one teaspoonful per ten pounds body weight, or Milk of Magnesia, one teaspoonful per five pounds body weight.Note:If these agents are not available, coat the bowel with milk, egg whites or vegetable oil and give a warm water enema.If your dog has a poisonous substance on the skin or coat, wash it well with soap and water or give a complete bath in lukewarm (not cold) water, as described in the SKIN chapter. Even if the substance is not irritating to the skin, it should be removed. Otherwise, the dog may lick it off and swallow it. Soak gasoline and oil stains with mineral or vegetable oil. Work in well. Then wash with a mild detergent, such as Ivory soap.When signs of nervous system involvement begin to show, the dog is in deep trouble. At this point, your main objective is to get your dog to a veterinarian as quickly as possible. Try to bring with you a sample of vomitus, or better yet the poison in its original container. If the dog is convulsing, unconscious or not breathing, see Shock and Artificial Respiration. (Also see NERVOUS SYSTEM:Fits).The poisons discussed below are included because they are among the most frequently seen by veterinarians. Strychnine - Strychnine is used as a rat, mouse and mole poison. It is available commercially as coated pellets dyed purple, red or green. Signs of poisoning are so typical that the diagnosis can be made almost at once. Onset is sudden (less than two hours). The first signs are agitation, excitability and apprehension. They are followed rather quickly by intensely painful tetanic seizures that last about sixty seconds, during which the dog throws the head back, can't breathe and turns blue. The slightest stimulation, such as tapping the dog or clapping the hands, starts a seizure. This characteristic response is used to make the diagnosis. Other signs associated with nervous system involvement are tremors, champing, drooling, uncoordinated muscle spasms, collapse and paddling of the legs.Seizures caused by strychnine and other central nervous system toxins sometimes are misdiagnosed as epilepsy. This would be a mistake as immediate veterinary attention is necessary. Epileptic seizures are self-limited; the signs usually appear in a certain order, and each attack is the same. They are over before the dog can get to a veterinarian. Usually they are not considered emergencies (see NERVOUS SYSTEM: Epilepsy).Treatment: With signs of central nervous involvement, don't take time to induce vomiting. It is important to avoid loud noises or unnecessary handling that trigger a seizure. Cover your dog with a coat or blanket and drive to the nearest veterinary clinic.If your dog is showing signs of poisoning, is alert and able to swallow and hasn't vomited, induce vomiting as discussed above.  Sodium Fluroacetate (1080)This chemical, used as a rat poison, is mixed with cereal, bran and other rat feeds. It is so potent that cats and dogs can be poisoned just by eating the dead rodent. The onset is sudden and begins with vomiting followed by excitation, straining to urinate or defecate, an aimless staggering gait, atypical fits or true convulsions and then collapse. Seizures are not triggered by external stimuli as are those of strychnine poisoning.Treatment: Immediately after the dog ingests the poison, induce vomiting. Care and handling is the same as for strychnine.ArsenicArsenic is combined with metaldehyde in slug and snail baits, and may appear in ant poisons, weed killers and insecticides. Arsenic is also a common Impurity found in many chemicals. Death can occur quickly before there is time to observe the symptoms. In more protracted cases the signs are thirst, drooling, vomiting, staggering, intense abdominal pain, cramps, diarrhea, paralysis and death. The breath of the dog will have a strong smell of garlic.Treatment: Induce vomiting. A specific antidote is available but requires professional use. Metaldehyde - This poison (often combined with arsenic) is used commonly in rat, snail and slug baits. The signs of toxicity are excitation, drooling and slobbering, uncoordinated gait, muscle tremors and weakness that leads to inability to stand in a few hours. The tremors are not triggered by external stimuli.Treatment: Immediately after the dog ingests the poison, induce vomiting. The care and handling are the same as for strychnine.LeadLead is found in insecticides and is a base for many paints used commercially. Intoxication occurs primarily in puppies and young dogs that chew on substances coated with a lead paint. Other sources of lead are linoleum, batteries, plumbing materials, putty, lead foil, solder, golf balls and some roofing materials. Lead poisoning can occur in older dogs after ingestion of insecticides containing lead. A chronic form does occur.Acute poisoning begins with abdominal colic and vomiting. A variety of central nervous system signs are possible. They include fits, uncoordinated gait, excitation, continuous barking, attacks of hysteria, weakness, stupor and blindness. Chewing and champing fits might be mistaken for the encephalitis of distemper, especially in young dogs.Treatment: When ingestion is recent, induce vomiting. Otherwise, coat the bowel as described above. Specific antidotes are available through your veterinarian.PhosphorusThis chemical is present in rat and roach poisons, fireworks, matches and matchboxes. A poisoned dog's breath may have a garlic odor. The first signs of intoxication are vomiting and diarrhea. They may be followed by a free interval, then by recurrent vomiting, cramps, and pain in the abdomen, convulsions and coma. There is no specific antidote. Treat as you would for strychnine.Zinc PhosphideThis substance also is found in rat poisons. Intoxication causes central nervous system depression, labored breathing, vomiting (often of blood), weakness, convulsions and death. There is no specific antidote. Treat as you would for strychnine.Warfarin (Decon, Pindone)Warfarin is incorporated into grain feeds for use as a rat and mouse poison. It causes death by interfering with the blood clotting mechanism. This leads to spontaneous bleeding. There are no observable signs of warfarin poisoning until the dog begins to pass blood in the stool or urine, bleeds from the nose or develops hemorrhages beneath the gums and skin. The dog may be found dead with no apparent cause. A single dose of warfarin is not as serious as repeated doses.